Americans take into consideration a number of factors when deciding where to live, including the quality of schools, the strength of the local economy and job market, the area’s safety and culture, as well as its climate. Cities that perform well by these measures are more likely to attract new residents, and those that do not tend to drive residents away.

Comparing entire cities to each other can be problematic, particularly since living conditions can vary from one neighborhood to the next. Still, as much as a city can be judged on the whole, some cities face widespread problems that detract from residents’ overall quality of life.

21. Massachusetts
> Worst city to live: Springfield
> Population: 154,336
> Median home value: $146,700
> Poverty rate: 27.3%
> Adults with at least a bachelor’s degree: 17.5%

Springfield is one of the poorest cities in Massachusetts. A typical city household earns just $38,398 a year, about $32,200 less than the typical Massachusetts household. The city’s poverty rate of 27.3% is the highest in the state and nearly double the national poverty rate.

Springfield also has one of the worst job markets in the country. The city’s two-year job growth is below average, and its unemployment rate of 9.3% is tied for 16th highest out of the 551 U.S. cities reviewed.

American cities are often held to the standards of national averages, or against all of the other cities in a country. However, for the residents that actually live in these places, a more appropriate point of comparison are those cities that can be found nearby, in the same state.

To determine America’s worst cities to live in each state, 24/7 Wall St. reviewed data on the largest U.S. cities. Based on a range of variables, including crime rates, employment growth, access to restaurants and attractions, educational attainment, and housing affordability, 24/7 Wall St. identified the worst city to live in each state.

Click here to see the worst city to live in every state.
Click here to see our detailed findings and methodology.